Sauce & mayonnaise

Recommendations on use of spicy CO2-extracts for mayonnaises manufacturing


Existent methods of adding dry spices have certain disadvantages:

  • losses during transportation, storage and processing (powdering, etc.);
  • efficiency ratio does not exceed 50-80 per cent (fine grinding to increase the efficiency of a spice, gives brown or greyish shade);
  • degrade vendibility of the end products, especially with prolonged storage;
  • deterioration of microbiological parameters;
  • increased costs of transportation, warehouses servicing, spices grinding and sterilization;
  • generally decrease production efficiency;
  • spices may carry microflora that may pollute the final product.

The application of subcritical СО2-extracts from herbs and spices is much more efficient and has the following advantages:

  • mproved vendibility for the products, making sauces and ketchups lighter and brighter;
  • increased shelf life due to the fact that some of the СО2-extracts' benefits include the following:
    • bactericidal properties;
    • antioxidant activity;
    • contain natural preservatives.
  • stabilized aroma and taste of the product making it more balanced and distinctive;
  • improved microbiological parameters;
  • avoid all the disadvantages of using dry spices (listed above);
  • simple storage conditions of СО2-extracts and long shelf life (up to 3 to 5 years);
  • no significant changes to the existing manufacturing technology are necessary to start using the extracts in the production;
  • allow to form a wide range of Health Food products with the addition of СО2-extracts of medicinal and prophylactic herbs;
  • raw materials treated with liquid СО2 are also widely applied in sauces and ketchups as they are sterile and their partly opened cellular structure delivers the volatile components quicker and more intensively.

The amount of extracts to be added usually comprises up to 0.50% of the total mass of raw materials and depends on the actual recipe. These variations depend on such factors as

  • desired aroma and flavour bouquet of a product,
  • individual qualities of the СО2-extracts used.
Filling rates for some of the extracts are given in the table overleaf.

Table 1. Recommended rates of subcritical СО2-extracts for sauces and ketchups manufacturing

Subcritical СО2-Extracts Filling Rate
(in grams per ton of final product)
Clove up to 100
Cinnamon 2 - 10
Black pepper 6 - 30
Pimento 4 - 35
Chilli pepper 10 - 80
Nutmeg 12 - 120
Mace 6 - 60
Bay leaf 2 - 8
Parsley (seeds) 4 - 20
Parsley (greenery) 4 - 300
Fennel (seeds) 3 - 15
Fennel (greenery) 4 - 10
Coriander (seeds) 3 - 25

Subcritical СО2-extracts may replace dry herbs and/or spices either completely or just partially. For example 250 grams of dry black pepper may be replaced by 50 grams of dry pepper plus the equivalent amount of СО2-extracts.

Table 2. Replacement rates of dry spices (1 kg) with corresponding СО2-extracts (g)*

Dry Spice The amount of subcritical СО2-extracts (grams)
to replace 1kg of dry spices
Clove 21.0 -100.0
Cinnamon 8.0 - 12.0
Pimento 10.0 - 30.0
Black pepper 14.0 - 42.0
Chilli pepper 12.0 - 45.0
Nutmeg 24.0 - 110.0
Bay leaf 7.0 - 20.0
Parsley (seeds) 10.0 - 40.0
Celery (seeds) 8.0 - 20.0
Fennel (seeds) 6.0 - 25.0
Coriander (seeds) 8.0 - 25.0
* Wide variation of replacement rates of dry spices (1 kg) with СО2-extracts depends on grinding degree of the dry spices, their grade and on growth area.

Table 3. Filling rates of СО2-extracts for some sauces and ketchups
(in grams per 1 ton of finished products)

Subcritical СО2-extracts Spicy tomato sauce Barbecue Sauce Spaghetti Ketchup Chilli Sauce "Tkemali" Sauce
Chilli 42,1 39,5 56,0 39,5
Black Pepper 11,88 30,0 15,0 15,0
Pimento 17,09 30,0 30,0 30,0
Clove 88,37 10,0 10,0 10,0
Cinnamon 15,90
Nutmeg 13,10
Coriander 30,0 30,0
Garlic 10,0 15,0
Fennel 15,0 15,0 15,0 15,0
TOTAL: 146,34 137,1 139,5 111,0 114,5


The extracts of spicy aromatic dry vegetative raw materials received with an extraction by means of liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) of the food class,
are substitutes of dry spicy aromatic raw materials when manufacturing
mayonnaises. The products are non-polluting and combine advantages of a bouquet of aroma-and-taste substances with biologically active raw materials in the native form and with the possibility of storage within three years in normal conditions, without a special sealing and without any loss of properties. Besides, CO2-extracts are bactericidal, and their application improves the vendibility of a product.
The aroma of CO2-extracts is considerably stronger than the one of natural dry spices.
The existent methods of adding dry spices au naturel have certain disadvantages as follows: losses during transportation, storage and treatment, efficiency ratio does not exceed 50-80 per cent, the vendibility degrades with keeping as spices during storage gives the products brown or greyish shade.

These recommendations give the chance to aromatise mayonnaises using CO2-extracts, practically not changing existing technologies.
CO2-extracts of spices can be introduced simultaneously with a vinegar-and-salt
solution, and one can preliminary dissolve them in a vegetable oil, in
1:50 or 1:100 ratio. It is recommended to prepare beforehand a composition of aromatic CO2-extracts, flavouring, vitamins and other additives, among which are several kinds of extracts depending on the formula of a mayonnaise.
The availability of antioxidant and bactericidal properties of CO2-extracts
prolongs the storage period of mayonnaises, gives them more pungent savour and
attractive vendibility, as well as a number of useful physiological properties.

Filling rates for CO2-extracts of spices regarding 100 g of finished products:

CO2-extracts Filling rate, g
Parsley 0.04
Celery 0.01
Fennel 0.03
Laurel 0.01
Pepper red 0.001

It is recommended to add the following CO2-extracts to mayonnaises: black pepper, pimento, fennel, caraway seeds, parsley, celery, red pepper, bay leaf, Blend N4, coriander, etc. in the amounts listed below: 0.001 - 0.05% of the total mass of the filling accepted as 100 per cent in accordance with the formula.

In order to increase the range of mayonnaises, especially low-calorie and
weakly keen ones, for older persons and people with chronic disorders of gastroenteric tract functions, liver, kidneys and gallbladder, we recommend introduction of the following CO2-extracts with vitamin, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other, both protective and bioactive properties: brier, nettle, wheaten germs, barley sprouts, various middlings, etc.

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